11. gullible

12. benign

13. peripheral

14. rebuff

15. animosity

16. tenuous

17. complacent

18. acme

19. defunct

20. abet


red herring fallacy: an attempt to change the direction or distort the position of the opponent (or change the subject) in a debate–usually to avoid getting trapped in an awkward position

post hoc ergo hoc (“this because of this”): drawing a false conclusion, e.g., claiming that since a black cat ran in front of me, that was the reason that i slipped and fell 10 minutes later.

LATIN ROOTS (last session we did prefixes–these are latinate roots)

annus: year (annual, anniversary) [Spanish: ano; French: (annee)]

avis: bird (aviator, aviation, aviary) [Spanish: aviacion; French: aviation]

bellum: war (bellicose, belligerent) [Spanish: belicoso; French: beligerant]

–also know the roots:

—-bene (well/good) benefit, benefactor, benediction, benevolent [Spanish: bien/bueno; French: bien/bon]

—-malus (bad/evil) malevolent, malice, malady, malign, malignant, malcontent [Spanish: malo; French: malade (as in ill)]


1.  Understand the times for the prayers.

—explain how the prayer times are determined

—explain how the seasons influence influence the prayer times and the lengths of the shadows

2. Know that there are 17 integrals for the prayer

3. Memorize the first four integrals of the prayer (TIES Text, p. 106-107)

—1. having the intention to pray

—2. saying “Allahu Akbar”

—3. standing up (when able)

—4. reciting Al-Fatihah

A general overview of some Muslim dynasties in Egypt (in chronological order):

–Umar Ibn Khattab liberated Egypt c. 639 of the Common Era

–Ummayyad Dynasty

–Abbassid Dynasty



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